The project partnership is actively promoting the Textile Heritage, from the Wooden Loom Weaving to Digital Art project with the purpose to enhance its impact, foster its visibility and ensure its sustainability.
The websites that are already promoting this subject:
The Dare2Wow partnership strongly believes that the versitile textile industry presents an amazing potential for EVERYONE interested in the subject to embrace a professional career in this area. This is how it can be done!
2. Integration & school inclusion
3. The necessity of school inclusion
4. Conditions – criteria of success of the integration procedure
5. Activity 1
6. Activity 2
According to Christofaraki (2012), modern concepts in Education Science consider special education an integral part of the entire education and not a separate sector. One of the major issues of concern in Special Education and Education Science in general is the inclusion of children with special needs in schools. A particular interest in European and international level, both in bibliography and research, has been developed regarding the capability of integration of children with disabilities in public education.
Practice has shown that the integration of children with disabilities or special needs in typical schools has multiple benefits, not only for the children but also for everybody involved in the educational process, teachers, “healthy” children, parents. Teachers develop a wider acceptance philosophy, they reject stereotypic categorization and exclusion and they also develop new skills for more comprehensive settlement of the class environment. While it is clear what an important step it is for children with disabilities to be integrated in school, since they are treated with equality, acceptance and respect, it is also important for the rest of the children because they socialize, the feel a sense of solidarity, respect and mutual support.
According to the World Health Organization (1980), disability is defined as the loss or reduction of the functional capacity or capacity to exercise an activity due to some kind of fault. So disability expresses the inability of a person to exercise everyday activities such as personal care, transportation, occupation or socializing. The term is different from the more general term impairment, which covers any deviation from the normal structure, physical or mental, and it is also different from the term handicap, which denotes the result of an injury or disability. The disadvantage expresses the inability of a person to perform an activity considered normal, and hence is connected with the requirements and the perceptions of society towards disability. Therefore, it is obvious that the disability is more of a social matter and not so much a private one (Oliver, 1990), and that is the reason why society itself should understand that most of the problems children and generally people with special needs face come from social organization and the interactions therein (Marks, 1999).
Regarding the role to be played by modern Pedagogy and the modern school, it should be adapted to the needs of all children. Undoubtedly, a change and/or adaptation of the analytical and the school curriculum is needed, as well as the promotion of new teaching practices and the removal of negative attitudes of teachers towards children with disabilities, so that the special characteristics and the needs of every child are respected.
The notion of school inclusion could generally be defined as the process by with all children are educated to the greatest extent possible in an environment with as few restrictions as possible. (Biklen, 1985, Winzer, Rogow & David 1987). However, “the term inclusion is used to highlight the efforts made to eliminate the isolation and marginalization”. (Kypriotakis, 2001).
Nowadays, the dominant perception is that of inclusion, that is the effort “the problems of children with minor or major difficulties in learning and behavior to be treated in normal school and in the ordinary class, with the other children, other students, at all levels of education”. Besides, “the inclusion in the ordinary school is the first step to access and equal participation in all activities of social life”. People with special needs obviously face prejudices and racist behavior often, which positions them involuntarily in the “margins of society”. (Papaioannou, 1984).
In June 1994 the principle of “education for all” was formulated, when 92 governments and 25 international organizations signed the Declaration of Salamanca under the title “Principles, Policies and Practices in Special Education.” (UNESCO, 1994). There, among others, it is stated: … the guiding principle behind this framework means that schools should accommodate all children, regardless of physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other capabilities. This includes both disabled, and children with exceptional skills, children from linguistic, cultural or ethnic minorities, children from underprivileged or marginalized groups or regions. The most important point of the declaration is that the term inclusion (education for all) emerges, which is based on a philosophy of acceptance and respect to all children without putting parameters on inability.
According to J. Sebba and M. Ainscow (1996), the term inclusion “… describes the process during which school is trying to respond to all students individually by reviewing the organization and the delivery of the curriculum. Through this process, school increases its capacity to accept all students from the local society that wish to attend, and also reduces the need to reject”. In this way, the term goes beyond the limits of educational terminology and acquires a social and cultural meaning, since it includes and reflects the ideology and philosophy of a “society for all”. It becomes clear that the aim of this approach is that no student is left out of school, consequently leading to the effort to learn to live together with each other in a society of equal opportunities.
Nowadays the terms “integration”, “inclusion” and “co-education” are considered identical. Many use the terms integration, inclusion, normalization with the same, similar or different meaning, while others prefer the term “integration” instead of the term “inclusion” or use both with the same meaning, or consider integration as a condition for inclusion. (Tsinarelis, 1993). The term integration emerged mostly in the 50’s and 60’s and reflected the desire to move away from traditional practices and from any sense of exclusion and marginalization. According to Zoniou-Sideris (1996), the term integration “denotes the systematic placement of something into something else and the completion of the subject as an independent, integral part of a larger whole”. On the contrary, as Zoniou-Sideris (1996) supports, in inclusion the characteristics of the subject disappear, having been absorbed fully from the characteristics of the larger whole.
In conclusion, apart from just providing opportunities for placing a person in a a whole (integration), the children with special educational needs have every right to the same experiences as their peers that do not face difficulties. That is they have the need and the right to interact with these children, to provide integrated socialization experiences (inclusion).
The role of school is to educate all children taking under consideration the particular skills and the personality of every child, in order to promote their development: educational, psychological and social. The discrimination, the categorization, the “labels” and the characterization don’t promote the modern role of school and certainly aren’t consistent with modern educational theory and practice. Thus, in the field of Special Education, the perception that children with special educational skills should be handled outside “normal schools” is reviewed. As Zoniou-Sideri (2000) supports: “Special schools remain “closed”. They are unable to find outlets and break the barrier of prejudice. They don’t present various composition, corresponding to that of social reality. They choose their student population according to particular characteristics, which results to the exclusion of the students and their families, but also the exclusion of the special schools themselves”.
The basis of this movement is due to the social values of fundamental justice and equality. The changes observed in moral, social and cultural values are reflected in educational thinking, which supports school integration and inclusion. Nobody can nowadays overlook the fact that children who face difficulties are given opportunities for further improvement and better experiences if they are incorporated in the “normal” class, and on the other side this movement promotes the positive interaction of all the students with those who have special educational needs.
A review of modern research of international bibliography proves a strong tendency to support the movement of school integration (rationale for integration), formulating many reasons and arguments. Progress has been made in education regarding the design of special programs, better infrastructure and educational theories and approaches.
(Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, 1983; Canadian Education Association, 1985; Biklen, 1985; Winzer, Rogow & David, 1987; Florek, 1986; Stainback & Stainback, 1987).
An undoubtedly positive development in the Education area in general is the fact that in recent decades there is intense bibliographic and research interest in the process of integration of children with special educational needs in schools. In the same time, the growing movement to integrate children with disabilities in the general context of education was reinforced by laws and institutional decisions at international level. “The trend at the moment in the different member states of the European Union is to integrate children with special educational needs in mainstream schools, providing teachers with various forms of support in terms of personnel, materials and equipment" (European Commission, 1997).
So it becomes clear that the interest in school integration of children with disabilities and special needs in general is given, turning the issue into one of the most fundamental issues in educational planning in most European countries. However, it is certainly necessary to put a serious reflection on the qualitative assessment of the process of integration in order for the education to be effective and fulfill its primary goals.
According to mainly empirical data to be able to some extent to speak about successful outcome in the accession process, the following criteria-conditions should be fulfilled, at least in some degree:
Each of the above criteria has its own dynamics and its influence on the success of the integration program appears to have significant fluctuations. However, experience shows that the basis of success resides in the class and a basic factor is the teachers themselves, their background and their perceptions. Fullan and Milles (1992) characteristically support: “"This change requires knowledge, it is a journey where the problems are expected and welcome, where additional support is needed, where will and power are required to effect the change, which must be systematic and applied individually."
According to Meister (2000) who has worked mainly in Germany, in order for the possibility of inclusion in educational and social process to exist, the following criteria should be fulfilled, at least to some extent:
Of course all this discussion on criteria for the success of the integration process presupposes the overall design of a new education policy, so as to achieve remodeling of the school and of the role of all stakeholders and services.
To summarize, we would say that undoubtedly is not possible to apply in practice all the requirements and criteria mentioned above, since it is quite difficult to coordinate all processes and simultaneously deal with all related school issues in general. Farrell (1997a, 1997b) argues that: "It is probably unrealistic to expect that all schools can meet the needs of all students in every neighborhood ... Not all schools with meet the necessary conditions for integration education. ". However it is a very important step to focus our attention on the school community management structures, the quality assessment of our work as teachers, the conditions for improving the role of the school and on changing our attitudes and stereotypes in order to have progress in the integration and generally the Pedagogical process and thus to treat the needs of the student population that is becoming increasingly complex.
Students are learning about sport cloths and are to use and understand their usefulness by playing practical games.
Students are learning the printing procedure and are to print stamps on cloths.